Interoperability: Is there an X factor?

In the IoT scene, interoperability is a major theme; therefore, it affects the testing lifecycle of the IoT both strategically and operationally. IoT interoperability is compounded and influenced by several elements that directly and indirectly affect the implementation process. Communication between machines is enabled by technical interoperability, which is usually referred to as hardware/software components, systems, or platforms. It is often based on a variety of communication protocols that enable this type of interoperability.